In the era of rapid globalization, human rights and their protection have increasingly become subject of international policies of governmental as well non-governmental actors. And yet, in spite of growing international protection of human rights, there are still many unresolved questions regarding their scope and implementation. For example, what rights are to be recognized as universal human rights? And which institutions -- international or domestic -- are obliged or entitled to protect human rights of individuals and groups? These highly controversial questions will be examined in the context of current theories of human rights and of the role of international institutions such as the UN. The course explores the history of international recognition and protection of human rights and the major international declarations and covenants regarding human rights (such as the UN and European covenants on human rights). The role of international organizations of states (the UN, African Union and the like) as well as non-governmental organizations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International is to be discussed. The course also explores current developments in the theory and practice of international protection of human fight such as the R2P -- Responsibility to Protect.